Dr Kiran Kumar Mukku MD DM

Hyderabad – 20 March 2023

Salt also known as common salt or table salt is a mineral which is composed of 40% sodium and 60% chloride. The sodium in common alt is essential in small quantities to perform bodily functions like nerve impulse generation , muscle contraction. It also plays a role in maintaining water and minerals in appropriate proportions.  Salt intake in high quantities can have deleterious effects on health particularly among people with high BP ( Hypertension) , Kidney diseases, Heart failure. It is recommended that a person can have no more than 5000

mg (5grams) of salt per day. But the Indian diet contains more than 11 grams of salt which is way above the WHO recommended intake. 

Effects of high salt intake

  1. High sodium intake can result in uncontrolled blood pressures among patients with Hypertension

WHO recommends daily consumption of no more than 5 grams of salt per day

2. High Sodium causes rapid deterioration of kidney function among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)

3. High sodium intake promotes formation of kidney stones particularly calcium containing stones

4. High sodium can contribute to deterioration of clinical condition among patients with heart failure 

5. Increased risk of heart disease and stroke

Sodium intake in Kidney failure (CKD)

It is recommended to take only 2 grams of sodium ie., 5grams of common salt. This is approximately 100 millimols of sodium. This translates to 1 tea spoon of salt. High sodium increases BP which damages the kidneys even more. Sodium itself is harmful to kidneys . It is difficult to measure everyday the exact amount of salt to be used while cooking. Better way is to avoid table salt ie., any amount of extra salt.
Simple ways to reduce salt consumption is to avoid salt rich food like
pickles, papads, namkeens, fryums, Taking curd or buttermilk without salt
and avoiding junk food.

Avoid table salt
to reduce total
salt consumption
per day!!

Types of salt & Amount of sodium in each type

Iodised salt2300 mg
Kosher salt1920 mg
Sea salt,fine 2120 mg
Sea salt,coarse1560 mg
Pink (Himalayan ) salt2200 mg
Black salt2000 mg
Potassium salt ( salt substitute)0 mg
Black salt2000 mg
Potassium salt ( salt substitute)0 mg

Which type of salt is best for kidney disease patients?

Patients with kidney failure , cardiac diseases should avoid high sodium food. As mentioned in the table , each salt contains sodium in different concentrations. So which ever salt is being used , the amount of salt consumed should be modified based on its sodium concentration. Certain salt substitutes are available in markets which contain potassium instead of sodium. Kidney failure patients cannot tolerate potassium rich food as high potassium can impact their heart and may cause life threatening rhythm disturbances. Hence , before consuming different salts and salt substitutes available in market , we should see the contents of the salt.

Salt substitutes may contain potassium instead of sodium can be deleterious in Kidney patients.


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